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World War I - summary of the "Great War"

     We begin in the middle of the 19th century in Europe the rise of nationalism undermines the dominant powers the kingdom of Sardinia Ally to France defeats the Austrian Empire and obtains Italian unification Prussia which eyes the German Confederation also defeats the Austrians to create the North German Confederation five years later it allies with the southern German States defeats France and obtains the creation of the German Empire which is proclaimed in Versailles the new country takes over Alsace Lorraine to discourage French revenge attacks Germany moves diplomatically closer to austria-hungary and Russia and it rapidly develops its industry and army in the southeast of the continent insurgencies threaten the Ottoman Empire Russia its historical enemy takes advantage of the situation and after a war sparks the independence of Balkan states and seizes territories however Russia's rising status is frowned upon by Western powers who meet in Berlin to review the treaty this worsens Russian public opinion about Germany the latter then signs a defensive military alliance with Austria Hungary Italy joins the alliance after France seizes Tunisia which it long covets the three parties form the trip list or the Triple Alliance Germany now a major power embarks upon a colonial policy the country brings together European powers in Berlin to establish rules Iran colonization then seizes territories in Africa and Asia this causes friction with the British and French colonial empires faced with growing German power France and Russia sign a secret military alliance France then obtains from Italy a secret Treaty of neutrality which would avoid it having to manage a second front in the event of war the United Kingdom also things threatened by Germany's rise especially by its military fleet which can compete with its own Royal Navy moreover Germany moves diplomatically closer to the Ottoman Empire notably by building a railway line to link Berlin to Baghdad and facilitating access to Mesopotamian oil coveted by the British Empire France the United Kingdom and Russia then signed a military alliance and create the triple on Tom [Music] the Alliance's risk dragging the entire continent into war major powers embark upon an arms race and prepare military plans in the southeast of the continent the Ottoman Empire is weakened by a revolution austria-hungary takes advantage and annexes Bosnia and Herzegovina this move is opposed by Russia an especially Serbia which dreams of uniting the Slavic peoples of the south then two Balkan wars push the Ottoman Empire to the borders of the continent On June 28 1914 in Sarajevo the heir to the Austrian throne Francoise Ferdinand and his wife are assassinated by a Bosnian Serb nationalists austria-hungary accuses Serbia of having organized the attack Russia defend Serbia while Germany now the world's leading Military Park supports its austro-hungarian Ally on July 28th austria-hungary declares war on Serbia Russia reacts by decree a general mobilization of its troops triggering Germany to launch its military plan to avoid having to fight simultaneously on two fronts Germany plans to quickly defeat France by bypassing its armies by launching a surprise attack from the north it would then focus on Russia whose troops would take more time to mobilize Germany declares war on Russia invades Luxembourg and issues an ultimatum to Belgium demanding rite of passage for his troops Belgium refuses insisting upon its neutrality the following day Germany declares war on France and launches the offensive the United Kingdom which guarantees Belgian neutrality in turn declares war on Germany and sends its troops to France in a few days all European powers as well as Montenegro go to war only Italy remains neutral at the stage in Asia Japan which is allied with the United Kingdom declares war on Germany and prepares for an invasion of its colonies in China and the North Pacific Ocean on the Eastern Front Russia launches its offensive earlier than Germany expects but fails to gain ground in East Prussia while further south austria-hungary retreats in the West the Allied armies cannot hold back the German advance the franco-british armies retreat tomorrow where they reorganize while the French government flees the capital to take refuge in Bach though but the first German army holding the flank pivots away from Paris to join with the second army and continue surrounding Allied forces the Parisian reserve army attacks further north stopping in its tracks the German advance with this breach in the ranks Allied forces rush in and force a German retreat this is a failure of the Schlieffen Plan when the front stabilizes the two camps attempt to outflank each other and embark upon a race to the sea for Germany it is also a question of isolating Belgium and seizing ports where British reinforcements and supplies land the Belgian Army barely succeeds in joining the deadlocked war front networks of trenches are dug on both sides for about 700 kilometers between the North Sea and the Swiss border [Music] now that the Western Front is frozen both sides use full force to attack the enemy the war becomes total the mighty Royal Navy imposes a naval blockade on Germany while German submarines are sent to British waters to sink all ships and vessels Aviation which is still a recent invention is used first for observations planes would then gradually be used for bombing and air combat the Germans use Zeppelin airships to bomb Paris twice and England around 50 times both sides use lethal gases to attack the enemy in the trenches behind the frontlines entire populations participate in the war effort including women who are involved in arms factories around the world European colonies and British dominions are engaged in war they seize German colonies and supply large reinforcements of soldiers to the front lines on the Eastern Front Russia is in trouble with Austral German troops the Ottoman Empire seizes the opportunity to go to war alongside the Central Powers a new front opens in the Caucasus as Britain lands an Indian Army in Mesopotamia with the goal to take control of oil resources in reaction the Central Powers launched an offensive towards the Suez Canal to cut supply lines from India but are stopped in their advance in the Caucasus after the failure of the Ottoman offensive the government accuses the Armenian people of having supported Russia in retaliation more than half of the Armenian population would be massacred in what is today recognized as genocide by 32 countries but not by Turkey to support geographically isolated Russia Allies want to open a sea supply route via the Dardanelles Strait franco-british ships enter the Strait to bomb Ottoman forts but find the waters full of sea mines forcing a retreat a month later on April 25 Allies organized a military landing but Ottoman defenses hold steady Cree another deadlocked warfront during its submarine war Germany sinks the British ship Lusitania causing 1,200 civilian victims including 128 US citizens the United States officially neutral on to that point registers protest to prevent the u.s. from going to war Germany slows its submarine warfare Italy after negotiating with a triple on thought to annex new territories declares war on austria-hungary and launches an offensive around the isanzo river on the Eastern Front Russia completes its retreat and stabilizes the Battlefront Bulgaria which wishes to recover Balkan territories joins the Central Powers together with austro-german forces they invade Serbia in reaction the Allies violate the neutrality of Greece by using Salonika tool and reinforcements coming from France such as the Dardanelle where Ottoman victory is complete but it is too late for the overwhelmed Serbian army that flees via albania troops are landed on the island of Corfu from where they will be gradually brought back to the Macedonian front on the Western Front Germany launches a massive offensive in dirt then the German artillery pounds French trenches which resists as best they can in the south of the continent Portugal allied with the United Kingdom confiscates German ships in its ports in response Germany declares war on Portugal who then sends troops to France and to its colonies in Africa where only German East Africa still resists the Allied offensives in Mesopotamia the United Kingdom after losing is besieged army in could seek support in the region it secretly negotiates with France the partition of Ottoman territories at the end of the war the two powers then support an Arab nationalist revolt which starts in Mecca by promising them independence in the North Sea German and British fleets face off in one the largest naval battles in history despite heavy losses on the British side the Germans smaller number during the night take refuge in the airport while the Battle of Verdun is still ongoing and Italy is under pressure from Austria Hungary Russia attempts to relieve its allies by launching a massive offensive that succeeds in piercing through opposition defenses in the West another great offensive is launched along the Sun with Britain spearheading the attack they would use tanks for the first time but to no avail while Romania joins the auntaunt the Brusilov offensive and East and the battles of the Somme and Verdun all end having caused tremendous casualties on both sides troops are exhausted and demoralized in Germany the war effort and the allied trade embargo prevent the country from getting enough food causing widespread famine Western powers on the other hand can count on a supply of resources by the Atlantic mainly from the United States towards whom they are now in debt in response Germany relaunches unrestricted submarine warfare with the objectives of sinking all commercial and military ships in addition Germany sends a telegram to Mexico offering an alliance against the United States the message is intercepted by Britain and transmitted to the United States which then prepares to go to war [Music] in Russia the war effort exhausts a population who revolt and cause the Tsar to abdicate a provisional government is put into place which chooses to continue the war the United States in turn declares war on Germany but it would take several months for the first troops to join the front lines Greece which is under pressure from the Allies joined the auntaunt in both camps exhausted soldiers begin mutinies only is on the front 11 similar Italian offensives near little result at the cost of many lives further affecting troop morale Austral German troops counter-attack and push back the frontline at the gates of Gaza after a victory British armies prepare to enter Palestine to gain the support of the Jewish community British Prime Minister Arthur Balfour publishes of statement addressing Lord wrote shield a leader of the British Science Federation promising State for the Jewish people in Palestine in Russia the Bolsheviks organized a second revolution and seize power they sign an armistice with Germany but after the breakdown of negotiations war resumes Austral German forces put the Russian army out of action forcing the country to accept a peace treaty and recognize the independence of new states Russia then sees the start of a civil war with Russia out of the game Germany concentrates on the Western Front to win before US troops grow in strength a large-scale offensive is launched lasting for months and German troops push their way through Marne again but a powerful allied counter-offensive Force's German troops to retreat in parallel the Allies launch an offensive on the Macedonian front which quickly forces Bulgaria to sign an armistice the Ottoman Empire finds itself isolated while Arab British forces reach Damascus as the French land in Beirut austria-hungary retreats to the Balkans and to Italy the Empire is also weakened by minority separatists who proclaimed their independence the Ottoman Empire followed by austria-hungary signed an armistice with the auntaunt in Germany sailors refused to fight the Royal Navy and start a mutiny which turns into a popular revolt the Kaiser is forced to abdicate and Germany's new government requests an armistice which is signed on November 11 1918 over a period of six months Victor's of the world meet and Paris to draw up peace treaties without inviting Bolshevik Russia who signed a separate peace treaty with Germany the United States proposes a peace plan which includes the creation of the League of Nations the United Kingdom and especially France whose northern territory is devastated want to weaken Germany and make it pay heavy reparations June 28 1919 proves to be a symbolic date because five years after the assassinations at Sarajevo the peace treaty is signed between Germany and the Allies at Versailles in the same room where the German Empire had been proclaimed in 1871 the measures imposed on Germany are severe the country loses 20% of its territory and 10% of its population mainly to the benefit of Poland which is recreated and which obtains access to the sea Germany is cut in two while the Czar region returned coal is brought under international control for 15 years German colonies are carved up among the victors the country's army is severely dismantled finally Germany and its allies are considered solely responsible for war damages and must pay all reparations the treaty is considered a humiliation by the German people austria-hungary is completely dismantled Czechoslovakia and the kingdom of serbs croats and slovenes are created Italy feels aggrieved as it does not obtain all the territories it was promised Austria which is entirely german-speaking is denied the right to be attached to Germany the Ottoman Empire is also dismembered during the treaty of self the UK struggles to keep its word adding promised land to the French designers Jews and independence to the Arabs the Turks refused a treaty and take up arms again they gained some territories then sign in Lausanne a treaty fixing the new borders of Turkey the First World War or the so-called Great War was then the deadliest ever with just under 18 million dead including 8 million civilians the weakened population was then hit hard by the deadly Spanish flu pandemic economically European powers find themselves heavily indebted to the benefit of neutral countries and the United States which strengthens its status as a leading economic power Russia becomes the USSR a country exhausted by war and frustrated by the loss of many European territories in Palestine tensions mount between Arabs and the Zionist Jews who migrate there the new European borders disgruntled many the fact that some German populations are now living in Poland and Czechoslovakia would contribute to the outbreak of the Second World War  

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